Honest Ways to Cheat at Online Slots

Would you like to gain an edge when playing online slots? Then you’ve come to the right place as in this article, we at Starslots.com are going to show you honest ways to cheat at online slots? So, without further ado, let’s learn how to cheat (honestly)!

Find the Best Freebies

One of the easiest ways to get ahead in online slots is to find the best freebies. But how can we do this. Well, it’s easy, really. Simply, scroll though the introductory offers of online casinos (those possessing a UK Gambling Commission license). Next, find the best bonus offers. For instance, look for the casino with the biggest first deposit bonus. Thus, if you manage to locate one that gives you 100% on your first £500 deposit, you’ll receive £1,000 once you’ve lodged in your initial deposit (£500 + £500 = £1,000). Be sure to read the terms and conditions carefully, though.

Sign Up With Several Casinos

Of course, since you’re not obliged to frequent just one online casino, sign up with a bunch of the better ones to benefit from more bonuses. Then instead of getting just one deposit bonus or batch of free spins, you’ll be awarded several. And in this case the more is the merrier, right?

Get to Know Your Games Inside Out Through Demo Games

While free cash and free spins can help you get to know slots well, most of these offers have strings attached. But don’t despair as there is an even better way to understand a slot – through demo games. What are these? Demo games are free games you can play of your favourite slots. The best way to access these is through the slot developers’ websites themselves (not through online casinos). Thus, let’s say you wish to play Hall of the Gods from NetEnt. Head to NetEnt’s website and spend as much time as possible playing free games of it. Then, when you start playing for cash, you’ll know the slot inside out.

 Choose Generous Slot Machines

When choosing a slot, don’t just focus on things like genre and graphics; we also need to pay close attention to profitability. And while it’s a good idea to research a slot’s return to player (RTP), focussing on this figure alone can be misleading. True, the RTP can tell us the odds in a game, and the higher the RTP, the better your chance of winning. But RTPs can only get you so far; you need to consider a slot’s volatility, too. For example, even though slots with medium-low volatility don’t pay out very much, they do pay out often. In contrast, although slots with medium-high volatility tend to pay out big, they don’t reward you regularly. So if you wish to make your money go further, opt for low variance slots with high RTPs.

Final Thoughts

We hope that you’ve enjoyed this article and why don’t you start putting your new-found knowledge to the test right now?

Starburst Slot Gameplay Review

Play today and have bags of fun with the Starburst slot game, which offers players multiple ways to win, no matter what!

 The starburst slot game at King Casino is one of the most well known games available to play today from the giants at the software platform NetEnt, one of the best makers of games out there.

 The starburst slot game immerses players into a world of fun along with exhilarating wins, as long as you use the many special features to your advantage.

 Unlike any gaming experience you’ve had before, starburst slots offer big wins and fantastic bonus features with plenty of cash-winning boosts to give you big wins and fun times. 

Gameplay on this UK slot game

Starburst slot game is not only fun, but it’s great for those who want to play to win too! With 21 winning combos on offer with plenty of symbols to win with.

The standard of graphics with Starburst slot are fantastically bright giving the game a lovely whimsical feel, and immersing you in a world of playfulness.

 The quality of these graphics amongst the reels is brilliantly executed as it ties in well with the fun theme, and they represent the colours of the gems well, with a soundtrack that highlights all of these variations perfectly.

 The coin values in Starburst slot range from 1p to one pound, and there are 10 betting levels to choose from, no matter what the value is that you choose to play with.

 The fame has 10 pay lines whilst you play, but when the pay outs take place from left to right and right to left, this actually in fact makes up a game with 20 pay lines. 

Starburst slot special features

If you’re amongst those players who do love to enjoy a good bonus round, prepare to get excited because Starburst slot game doesn’t have a bonus round – this game has two!

 The wonderful starburst slot game can be played free, and this offers players the wild symbol, which replaces all other symbols to give the player multiple chances to create winning combos.

 There is a wild symbol, which appears only on the second, third and fourth reels, and it expands when it does show up on the reels and this expansion means it fills the whole reel that has been occupied, and this makes way for a re-spin re-activation. In a round that is featured, you can spin at a maximum of three times to win. 

Verdict

The starburst slot game is a fun game to play that you won’t want to miss out on. The starburst slot game offers amazing features along with various offers and just has a bit more to give than other games at the casino.

 It offers affordable rates too, making Starburst slot a fantastic option for those with little budgets or who are just beginning to dip their toes into the slots water and don’t want to spend loads of money just to see if they like to game with slots or not.

 All in all a great game that you’d be mad to miss out on!

5 Home Remedies for Toothache Pain

If you are experiencing toothache, it’s crucial that you pinpoint the root cause of your discomfort. Once you’ve figured out where the pain is originating from, you can work out how best to relieve symptoms such as swelling. If you are unable to get to your dentist right away, it’s only natural that you will want to try any method possible to provide some comfort, so here are 5 home remedies for toothache pain.

tea bags

Salt Water Rinse

Many people’s first port of call when it comes to relieving toothache is by doing a salt water rinse. As salt water is a natural disinfectant, it can help to loosen debris and food particles that may be trapped between your teeth. What’s more, treating toothache with salt water can also help to reduce inflammation as well as heal any oral wounds that you have.

Hydrogen Peroxide Rinse

Another remedy that may relieve inflammation and pain is performing a hydrogen peroxide rinse. Not only can it kill bacteria, hydrogen peroxide can also help to get rid of food particles, reduce plaque, and heal swollen and bleeding gums. Before getting started, it’s crucial that you dilute the hydrogen peroxide first and make sure not to swallow any of it.

Cold Compress

You may want to consider using a cold compress as a way to relieve any pain you are experiencing, particularly if trauma is the cause of your toothache. A cold compress causes your blood vessels in the area to constrict, which can help make the pain less severe. A cold compress is also used to reduce inflammation and swelling. To use this remedy effectively, you will need to hold a bag full of ice to the affected area.

Peppermint Tea Bags

You may not realize it, but peppermint tea bags can be another great method to help soothe sensitive gums and numb any pain you’re experiencing. To perform this correctly, you will need to allow a used tea bag to cool down before you can apply it to the affected area. Make sure that the tea bag is slightly warm still, otherwise you won’t get the full benefits.

Garlic

For thousands and thousands of years, garlic has been known and recognized for its medicinal benefits. Not only can garlic help kill off harmful bacteria, but it can act as a pain reliever too. If you plan to use garlic, you will need to crush the garlic clove to form a paste, which you can then apply on the affected area.

See Your Dentist

While these methods may lesson some of the pain for the time being, if you are still experiencing pain and inflammation, it’s crucial that you seek professional advice. When searching for a dentist, you may want to sign up to Elite Dentistry of Simi Valley, who offer a state-of-the-art technology approach to oral health care. They provide a range of services and treatments to help tackle your toothache and get it nipped in the bud.

Whether you do a salt water rinse, use a cold compress, or anything else, it’s important that you make an appointment with your dentist as soon as possible to prevent any further pain or damage to your teeth and gums.

Mustang Gold Slot

Hang out with cowboys, cowgirls and wild horses in Mustang Gold slot by Pragmatic Play. Set in the American West, this fun slot comes with a couple of cool bonus features that could help you ride off into the sunset with up to 12,000 times your stake at www.wizardslots.com.

Slot Features

Mustang Gold is a 5-reel, 3-row, 25-payline, medium-variance, cowboy-themed video slot. With bonus rounds, massive jackpots, and an RTP of 96.53%, Mustang Gold delivers tons of thrills. And you can play this slot on any device from between 25p and £125 a spin.  

Slot Symbols

There are eight regular symbols in this game. The lower-value ones are the playing cards (jacks, queens, kings and aces), while higher-value ones are cowgirls, cowboys, black mustangs and white mustangs. The black mustang is the most valuable of these symbols – paying up to 20 times your stake (if you manage to land 5 on a payline).

Mustang Gold also boasts a scatter symbol, a wild symbol and money and collect symbols. The slot logo is the wild and it substitutes for all other symbols, except the scatter. The wild can only appear on reels 2-4, though. The camp fire symbol works as the scatter, while horse shoe symbols and sheriff’s badge collect symbols appear in the bonus rounds. 

Bonus Features

Mustang Gold contains 3 bonus rounds. In the Money Collect feature, you head to a new screen and choose from a selection of horse shoes. Each horse shoe comes with a cash value and if you land a sheriff’s badge collect together with these, you win the cash totals on the horse shoes.

Meanwhile, a Jackpot Reveal Bonus Game feature can be triggered by landing a jackpot horse shoe symbol anywhere on the reels plus the sheriff’s badge symbol on the 5th reel. And once again, you have to select horse shoes to reveal a jackpot symbol here. What’s more, if you can match 3 of the same symbols, you win the Mini, Minor, Major or Grand prize (50, 100, 200 or 1,000 times your bet, respectively).

The Free Spins feature’s accessed by landing the scatter on reels 2,3 and 4 (you also win a payout equal to your total stake). There are up to 8 free spins on offer and more wilds and horse shoes are also added during this round so you can win lots of bonus prizes. Plus, if you’re really lucky, you could win unlimited additional free spins.

More About the Developer – Pragmatic Play

Pragmatic Play is a huge player in the iGaming industry because its multi-product portfolio is innovative and mobile-focussed, and it strives to create the most engaging and evocative experience for its customers across a wide range of products (including live casino, bingo and slots). The developer has won numerous awards and some of its other slots include Wolf Gold, Lucky Strike and Queen of Gold. 

Final Thoughts 

If you’re into horses, cowboys and thrilling bonuses, then check out Mustang Gold from Pragmatic Play. 

Insomnia And What Happens In The Brain When You Can’t Sleep

The NHS has revealed that insomnia is a common problem for one in three people in the United Kingdom. In light of this, Dr. Rahul Jandial, M.D., Ph.D., who specializes as a brain surgeon and neuroscientist has cast more light on what we think we know about sleep, stating that a lot of our theories are wrong.

According to him, everybody thinks that melatonin is responsible for the sleep pattern of individuals. However, this is not the case. He added that his job as a surgeon has seen him take out the part of the brain responsible for making melatonin in patients, yet they slept with ease.

insomnia

Healthy sleep is based on the circadian rhythm, a common phenomenon in animals, plants, and nature. Humans live on a planet that comprises day and night seasons which our bodies must synchronize with. Therefore, failure to be in sync with these seasons will result in sleeping difficulties.

Circadian rhythm is triggered when we witness or see darkness. The chemicals which are released are behind the eye and it’s different from the area where the pineal gland and melatonin function. This is a pointer that it’s not just the brain that goes to sleep but the genetics of the body changes when one falls asleep.

Dr. Jandial went on to say that darkness which exists inside and outside the home signals for the brain to fall into sleep. Therefore, reducing the brightness of your phone screen, computer, and TV when bedtime is approaching will positively influence sleep. Away from insomnia for a bit, winning big in an online casino like Novibet will surely eliminate any sleep problems as you’ll be thrilled from the available options that enhance your chances of winning.

Asides from the tech habits which influence one’s sleep pattern, other factors like worry, stress, and anxiety can also affect sleep. This is because the aforementioned conditions result in the release of chemicals which function like cocaine and coffee. He added that it’s easy for these elements to become habitual too.

He went on to state that the eight hour rule is a myth. In his work as a surgeon, he preferred sleeping for a solid uninterrupted five hours than for eight hours where there would be interruptions.

He added that occasionally falling into sleep and waking up wouldn’t allow one to get into the deeper stages of sleep where they can rest fully. This means that snoozing alarms are a bad bet as the alarms were not designed to tease one in and out of sleep. If you’re well-rested in sleep, you’ll need no help to get up.

Speaking on how to achieve a good night’s sleep, he said that folks must do their best to adopt the first rule. The rule states that individuals must set their sleeping stage which can pass for their beds or mats, and check the proximity of the light switch from the bed.

All these factors need to be considered, he added. If you’re the type who’d need to read a book to aid you in falling asleep, then investing in a low-level lamp would be ideal instead of dragging yourself across the room to switch a light on or off.

He advised that coffee should be avoided once it’s 12 o’clock because it can remain in the body system for up to eight hours and eliminate any chances of taking a nap.

He also recommended the use of white noise as an aid for sleep. Normally, you can get an app to make some noise in the background. This is because a little distraction to the brain can cause other unsettled parts of the mind to relax.

However, if you’re awake after 60 minutes of putting these steps into practice, then you should get up and get busy for close to 30 minutes and try sleeping again. He noted the importance of avoiding falling into a vicious cycle. One has to slide into sleep as it cannot be initiated by just flipping a switch and nodding off.

Origins of Bingo

Many of us only know Bingo as it is played today. But has it always been this way? And the million dollar question, how did it all start? Keep reading to find the answers.

If you are new to bingo, you probably want to know what it is first before you click here to play.

Bingo As We Know It

Bingo is a game of chance that is played on a ticket containing a grid of numbers. The grid had five columns and five rows. Then numbers a randomly called out, and if that number corresponds to a number on your ticket, you mark that number. If all the numbers called out appear on your grid, you call out BINGO, which indicates that you have won. The game host will then check to make sure that all the numbers are indeed there.

However, the way these numbers need to appear on your card may vary according to the type of bingo you are playing. All the numbers might need to occur in one column or row, or diagonally or sometimes even all the numbers on your card.

Where Did It Originate?

It is believed that the game Bingo is of Italian origin. Its history goes way back to 1530 and an Italian variant of the lottery called Lo Giuoco del Lotto D’Italia. In the late 1770s the game made its way to France where it was referred to as Le Lotto and mainly played by filthy rich Frenchmen. A version of the game was also played in Germany in the 1800s, but this was more to help students learn spelling, history and math.

Beano was the name of the game when it first made its way to America in 1929.The game was played predominantly at country fairs where players used to mark their cards with beans, hence the name Beano. The game was renamed to Bingo when a salesman called Edwin S. Lowe heard someone yell Bingo instead of Beano.

Edwin hired Carl Leffler, a math professor, to help him diversify the number combinations on bingo tickets. 6,000 different bingo cards were created by 1930. This prevented the scenario of more than one person calling Bingo simultaneously.

Bingo in Churches and Nursing/Retirement Homes

Edwin was approached by a priest about using Bingo for church fundraisers. This is where Bingo got really popular. Approximately 10,000 bingo games were played weekly by 1934.

Bingo is also popular as a form of therapy in nursing or retirement homes. It is used as a means to help residents relax as well as socialise. You only need a few staff members or volunteers to create this entertaining and fun filled activity. In these types of homes Bingo is not played for the prizes, but more for its other benefits.

Bingo Today

Bingo has come a long way since the 1500s. Not only is it offered at land-based casinos, but it has also made its way to online casinos. The days of perceiving bingo as a game for old people are long gone. It is fast-paced, engaging and the prizes are not too bad either. There are also a variety of different types that you can try.

How NeuroScience Kavinace OS Combats Sleep Problems Caused By Oxidative Stress

It’s a widely known fact that getting better sleep is one of the most reliable ways to improve your overall wellbeing, but most people don’t know that one of the primary functions of sleep is to protect the body from oxidative stress. As your body encounters everyday stress in the environment and uses its metabolism to create energy, free radicals or reactive oxygen species are generated and accumulate within the body. The accumulation of these negative biological factors is known as “oxidative stress.” Consuming antioxidants is one way to combat oxidative stress. However, sleep also plays a pivotal role in this process as well. To optimize your ability to combat oxidative stress during sleep, industry-leading nutraceutical brand NeuroScience has created a supplement called Kavinace OS. Here’s an overview of how this supplement works and some of the key ingredients it contains:

A Mixture of Essential Minerals, Amino Acids, and Antioxidants

Kavinace OS is a specially formulated blend of minerals, amino acids, and antioxidants that work together to equip your body with the components it needs to get the most out of sleep. More specifically, the supplement is designed to shorten sleep onset so that you fall into a deep, beneficial state of sleep faster. It also helps to lengthen the duration and enhance the quality of deep sleep cycles like REM, which is essential for optimal wellbeing. The supplement is able to achieve this by providing an ingredient list that can’t be found in a Kavinace alternative, which includes zinc, magnesium, selenium, melatonin, resveratrol, L-theanine, and astaxanthin.

Heightened Levels of Melatonin Expedite Sleep Onset

When your body is dealing with elevated oxidative stress, it can be difficult to fall asleep within an allotted time frame. This can be a horrible problem to have if you’re also living on a very strict schedule, as any delays in falling asleep will reduce the amount of shuteye you’re able to get each night. Kavinace OS works to solve this problem by proving 5 mg of melatonin in each dose, which is even more than was previously included in the Kavinace Ultra PM supplement.

Only Take Before Bed for Optimal Results

Due to the elevated levels of melatonin, it’s never a good idea to take this supplement in the daytime, as it will lead to drowsiness. Kavinace was specifically formulated to have a pronounced impact on wakefulness, so you should only take it about one hour before bedtime to be safe. This will ensure that you’re getting the most out of the ingredients because your dosage levels will peak during the same time as your sleep onset period.

The Ingredients in Kavinace OS Have Been Proven to Reduce Sleep Onset Latency

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a mixture of astaxanthin and zinc (two of the main ingredients in Kavinace OS) was found to significantly reduce sleep onset latency – the time it takes to fall asleep. The study monitored sleep onset latency over a period of 12 weeks and found that by the end of the twelfth week, the group which received zinc + astaxanthin experienced a 10-minute reduction in sleep onset latency.

Best Quality E-Liquid for Cheaper Price

Every vaper should be able to enjoy the product that they are buying, especially given the fact that they normally take a lot of time and expenses to make the right order. Many E-Cig brands, especially in the UK have come out in large numbers, with each one trying to convince a customer to try their product.

As an experienced vaper, you may have already come across the V2 brand of products and know how enticing their packages are. V2 Cigs have gone to extreme lengths to ensure that they offer their customers the best that money can buy, especially in terms of E-liquid flavors.

We already know that any E-liquid brand is expected to produce vapor and provide the vaper which the well-known nicotine that smokers look for. But, the question now is will the taste and quality be as good? As a vaper you need to be able to understand the different types of E-liquid flavors available in the market and know what tastes are suitable for you.

When you choose to buy products at V2 Cigs, you get to have the best vape sessions that money can buy. V2 liquids are taken through all the quality assurance checks to ensure that the customer gets to have the best taste, flavor and throat hit. Not only do V2 E-Liquids come in multiple flavors, but, they can also be available in 10ml bottles for as little as $6 to ensure everyone can be able to afford them. V2 E-liquid categories are basically meant to provide less expensive choices that are humble to everyone’s wallet.

Some of the flavors available at the V2 store include Sahara, Menthol, Coffee, Vanilla, Cola, Cherry, Grape and many others. You only need to visit a V2 store or the online store at buyv2cigs.co.uk to get a view of the complete list of flavor options have the best deals in the possible.

To assure their customers of their consistency, all V2 E-liquid bottles are labeled with all the ingredients that they have used so that the vaper knows exactly what he or she is vaping. The bottles have also been made child proof, with droppers to ensure that no toddler gets to ingest what they are not supposed to. The V2 E-liquids can also be used with any V2 pen so a vaper does not need to change pens when they need to get a new flavor.

The best part about ordering your products at V2 Cigs is that the starter kit comes equipped with all manner of accessories meant to make your life as a vaper easier. With a V2 kit, you can have all your shopping requirements in one go. Rechargeable batteries, charger, socket mount, USB express cables, liquid cartridges, e-liquids are amongst the many accessories you can find in a standard V2 Kit.

With all these awesome advantages it is only fair that the V2 products stay at the top of the market where they currently are. So get to be part of this wonderful vaping journey by visiting buyv2cigs.co.uk to get your order going.

GenF20 Plus Supplement

How do the rich and famous manage to look so young and energetic? Is it the food they eat? Or the happiness and contentment that comes with having money and fame? Or are they simply endowed with good health and long life? The answer seems to be a bit of all of these combined with a secret that will probably astound you. They take the GenF20 Plus supplement to preserve their youth, energy and vitality.

What is GenF20 Plus supplement?

The manufacturers of GenF20 Plus claim that it is the most complete HGH releaser ever created. But what is HGH and what does it do? You probably did not pay attention in your science class or have not been listening to CNN and Oprah if you have never heard of it. HGH is the short form of Human Growth Hormone which is a special hormone produced by the pituitary gland located in the brain. This hormone is makes children grow at such as fast rate that they do. But this hormone is important throughout our life because it strengthens our bones and muscles, improves our immunity against diseases, improves our memory and vision, improves the elasticity of skin and recues wrinkles, improves heart function and renews energy, and increases libido and enhances sexual performance.

Deficiency of HGH in the body results in saggy skin, wrinkles, tiredness, loss of immunity to diseases, and loss of energy and vitality. This is what begins to happen to us in our forties.

What are the components of GenF20 Plus?

As we get older, the pituitary gland in our brain gradually decreases the release of HGH hormone. As stated above, GenF20 Plus is an HGH releaser, which means that it promotes the release of the HGH hormone by the pituitary glands. The more HGH hormone that is released, the healthier we become. Good health is precondition for a strong and energetic body and youthful looks. The GenF20 Plus supplement comes in two forms – as a tablet and as an oral spray, which complement each other. They are both made of a combination of the HGH hormone and an array of amino acids that are essential for our body. Amino acids, as you may be aware, are the building blocks of protein. These proteins promote the release of HGH hormone, improve metabolism, diminish wrinkles and laugh lines, strengthen bones and muscles, improve immunity against diseases, and increase libido and improve sexual performance. The spray comes with Alpha GPC amino acid that is a powerful releaser of HGH hormone.

Is it safe for consumption?

GenF20 Plus tablet and spray are fully FDA-approved oral supplements that can be taken without the doctor’s prescription. As they are made of 100% natural ingredients and no chemicals are added in any form, they are totally safe for human consumption. Thousands of people have had this supplement and so far there has not been a single report anywhere regarding any negative side effects of the products. There is not even the risk of overdose in case you take more than the recommended dose. This makes them ideal for people of all age groups and health conditions.

What’s the recommended dose?

The recommended dose for GenF20 Plus tablet is 4 pills per day for best effect. For spray, the dose is 6 sprays per day. You do not need a doctor’s prescription to have the supplement. As stated above, there is no risk of overdose if you have more than the recommended dose. This is because it is filled with the very ingredients that our body is made of.

How fast does it work?

If the recommended dose is taken daily without fail, you can lose your wrinkles and regain your vitality within 90 days. However, you must combine that with a healthy lifestyle, which basically means a balanced diet and regular exercise. If you are over 80 or 90, it may not be able to erase your wrinkles, but it will still give you energy and vitality, and protect you from diseases, according to the manufacturers. This is the reason it has become popular with people of all age groups, including the very old.

Can it also promote weight loss?

A lot of people wonder if it can also be used as a weight loss supplement. If you are purely looking to lose your weight, then there may be other methods are work faster than GenF20 Plus because it is really not made for that purpose. However, it has been known to promote weight loss. The L-form amino acids increase metabolism to produce more energy for the body. By combining this HGH supplement with a balanced diet and regular exercise, you can burn the fat around your waistline.

What are people saying about it?

I am a short man in my thirties and I have always been secretly embarrassed by my lack of height. So the main reason I decided to try GenF20 Plus after hearing about its amazing properties was to see if I would be able to gain a few inches, at least. To tell the truth, it didn’t work that way. I guess I was a bit too old for that. However, after a few months I began to feel some changes. I now look younger, healthier and more energetic. The result: I am now in love with a beautiful woman who is a head taller than me. She says that she doesn’t care about my height as long as I am youthful, healthy and a tiger in bed. LOLs!!!” – Peter Simmons, Baltimore

I am sixty and look like forty. I am not saying this. People tell me every day and ask me the secret of my youthful looks. I tell them that it’s in my genes. But the truth is that I take a daily dose of GenF20 Plus without fail. It has helped me preserve my youth and also the energy to live an active life. Not too bad for a sixty years old woman, I must say.” – Angie Powell, Detroit

Evening Primrose

Fever plant, king’s cure all, night willow-herb, Oenothera biennis, rock-rose, sand lily, scabish, sun-drop

Evening primrose oil is extracted from the seeds of Oenothera biennis. It contains the amino acid tryptophan and a high concentration of essential fatty acids, in particular cislinoleic acid (CLA) and gamma-linoleic acid (GLA). The variety of evening primrose grown for commercial purposes produces oil with 72% CLA and 9% GLA. These fatty acids are prostaglandin precursors.

Conversion of the prostaglandin precursors into prostaglandins is the basis for using this oil to stimulate cervical ripening, prevent heart disease, and reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Its efficacy in other clinical conditions may result from its supply of fatty acids. Evening primrose is available as capsules, liquid, oil, and tablets (evening primrose complex), in products such as Mega Primrose Oil, Original Primrose for Women, and Royal Brittany Evening Primrose Oil.

Reported uses

Used by midwives to stimulate cervical ripening during pregnancy at or near term and to ease childbirth. Also used to manage cyclic mastitis, premenstrual syndrome, and neurodermatitis. Used as a dietary stimulant. Used to treat eczema and diabetic neuropathy in Europe, although recent evidence doesn’t support its use for these conditions. Also used to treat hypercholesterolemia, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, Raynaud’s disease, Sjogren’s syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, endometriosis, obesity, prostate disease, hyperactivity in children, and asthma.

Administration

  • Oral use: Based on GLA content; typically, 1 to 2 capsules (0.5 to 1 g) three times a day
  • Cyclic mastitis: 3 g by mouth every day in 2 or 3 divided doses
  • Diabetic neuropathy: 4 to 6 g by mouth every day
  • Eczema in children: 2 to 4 g by mouth every day
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: 5 to 10 g every day.

Hazards

Adverse reactions may include headache, nausea, diarrhea, bloating, vomiting, flatulence, and allergic reactions. When given with drugs that lower the seizure threshold such as tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines, and other epileptogenic drugs, there is an increased risk of seizures.

Those with an allergy to evening primrose oil and pregnant and breast-feeding patients should avoid use. Those with a history of epilepsy and those taking a tricyclic antidepressant, phenothiazine, or another drug that lowers the seizure threshold should also avoid use.

Clinical considerations

  • Monitor patient for allergic reaction.
  • The fatty oil, extracted from the seeds of the evening primrose plant by a cold extraction process, is available standardized for fatty acid content.
  • Drug effects may be delayed: patients with cyclic mastitis and premenstrual syndrome may not see improvement for 4 to 6 weeks, with maximum benefit in 4 to 8 months; those with eczema may experience decreased pruritus in 3 to 4 months; and patients with diabetic neuropathy may see improvement in 3 to 6 months.
  • Vitamin E may be given with evening primrose oil to prevent the formation of toxic metabolites.
  • Tell patient to discontinue the herb if they have signs or symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as trouble breathing, hives, itchy or swollen skin, or rash.
  • Advise patient to consult with her health care provider before using evening primrose oil during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
  • Advise patient to take herb with food to minimize adverse GI reactions.
  • Tell patient to remind pharmacist of any herbal or dietary supplement that he’s taking when obtaining a new prescription.
  • Advise patient to consult his health care provider before using an herbal preparation because a conventional treatment with proven efficacy may be available.

Safety Risk The oil may unmask previously undiagnosed epilepsy, especially when taken with a drug that treats depression or schizophrenia.

Research summary

The concepts behind the use of evening primrose oil and the claims made regarding its effects haven’t yet been validated scientifically.